In the manufacturing of thin-film modules, active photovoltaic layers are applied directly to a glass or metal pane in an integrated process. The thickness of the layer applied
in this process is a mere 0.002 millimetres. The thin coating of the active substance, amorphous silicon (a-Si), copper indium (gallium) selenide (CIS/CIGS) or cadmium telluride (CdTe) for instance, reduces the amount of material used and the manufacturing costs. Although, in comparison to crystalline modules, thin-film modules have lower conversion efficiencies, they have better temperature coefficients, are able to convert diffused light better and are less sensitive to shadowing.