A solar module is made up of several solar cells which are connected to one another. Solar cells when exposed to light release positive and negative charge carriers (photovoltaic effect) which generates direct current. In the production of a solar cell, wafers from the semiconducting material silicon are doped (impurity doping). When two semiconductor layers with different impurities are put together, a so-called p-n
junction is generated between the layers. An electric field is generated at this junction which separates the charge carriers released by photons. Voltage is tapped through the contacts on the front and back. An anti-reflex layer protects the cell and reduces reflection losses at the surface of the cell. A differentiation is made between the different types of cells and modules.